Database management is the system to manage information that is essential to the company’s business operations. It includes data storage, distributing it to users and application programs and then modifying it if necessary and monitoring changes to the data and preventing it from getting damaged due to unexpected failure. It is part of the overall informational infrastructure of a business which supports decision-making, corporate growth, and compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

The first database systems were developed in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They evolved into the information management systems (IMS) which allowed the storage and retrieve massive amounts of data for a wide range of purposes, from calculating inventory to supporting complicated financial accounting and human resources functions.

A database consists of a set of tables that are organized in accordance with a specific scheme, such as one-to-many relationships. It makes use of primary keys to identify records and allows cross-references between tables. Each table has a set of fields called attributes that provide information about data entities. The most widely used type of database currently is a relational model designed by E. F. “Ted” Codd at IBM in the 1970s. This model is based upon normalizing the data, making it more easy to use. It is also easier to update data since it doesn’t require the modification of several databases.

The majority of DBMSs are able to support multiple database types by providing different levels of external and internal organization. The internal level addresses costs, scalability, and other operational issues including the layout of the physical storage. The external level determines how the database appears in user interfaces and other applications. It could include a mix of various external views (based on different data models) and may include virtual tables that are constructed from generic data in order to improve performance.

21st Century